Upon the discovery of the ruins of the Etruscans in what is now Tuscany, the ancient art of granulation became wildly popular. Granulation was the art of meticulously decorating a smooth surface with tiny gold balls. It was time-consuming and tedious work and the Etruscans mastered this sophisticated technique. Fortunato Pio Castellani, a Roman jeweler during the early to mid 19th century, crafted fine jewelry based on these designs. His interpretation of this art brought it to the forefront and became extremely popular in Europe, especially among the aristocracy and those that were on their Grand Tour.